Lockdown has led many homeowners to scrutinise their homes as never before, having been compelled to spend more time in them. Families have perhaps been most affected in terms of living space, often having to find areas suitable for an office and home schooling. This has led to a re-evaluation of a home’s purpose with the consequence that many families are facing the dilemma of moving or extending. Significant numbers of households, having saved money by commuting less and not travelling abroad, are deciding to upgrade their homes. The result is a surge in demand for extensions, conversions and renovations in the drive to create more living space in the most effective way.
Loft conversions, side and rear extensions, basement rooms, garden rooms or pods all help resolve space issues and can add value to a property. Other possibilities include improvements and renovations such as a new kitchen or a bathroom upgrade to improve functionality.
- Adding value means that there will be fewer potential buyers if the property outprices the local market ceiling price: this may risk the cost of the renovation not being recouped in a future sale.
- Over-extending a house in relation to the size of its plot can have a detrimental effect on the property value; instead of adding to it, the work may compromise a future sale.
- Light ingress from increased glazing may need mitigation measures to reduce glare and diffuse light. Building Regulations determine the amount of glazing that can be added to an extension which must also meet energy performance standards.
- A poorly constructed extension could reduce the value of a home along with the resulting loss of garden space.
- Be aware of the rising cost and current shortage of construction materials which is causing delays in the supply chain.
- Ensure that the existing boiler can cope with the extra demands placed on it by the extension.
- Check with the local authority to clarify whether building work will be liable for Community Infrastructure Levy.
- Site insurance is required for both the new and existing structure.
Permitted Development Rights
Permitted development allows improvement and home extensions without the need to make a planning application if certain criteria are met. The categories of work which do not amount to development are contained in Section 55 (2) of the Town & Country Planning Act 1990. Permitted development can include loft conversions, extensions, roof lights, solar panels and new windows, however, there are limits on the height of building work and the distance of new extensions from existing property. In conservation areas and national parks, Permitted Development Rights differ and listed buildings require listed building consent. A change of use application may also be required.
To obtain confirmation that a scheme complies with permitted development rules, an application for a certificate of lawful development can be made to the local planning authority. Locally granted planning permission may exist covering the type of development you aim to make such as a Local Development Order; a Neighbourhoods’ Development Order or a Community Right to Build Order.
If a planning application is not required, other consents may still be necessary such as works to protected trees, listed building consent, environmental permits or licenses. The developer is responsible for ensuring that the necessary permissions are obtained; works carried out without the required consents may result in enforcement action: in all cases it is advisable to check with the local planning authority.
Even if your extension can be built according to Permitted Development Rights, the work must obtain Building Regulations approval: this stipulates a minimum standard for design, construction and alterations. Building Regulations cover matters such as structural integrity, fire safety, energy efficiency, damp proofing, ventilation, rewiring, underpinning, new waste plumbing and other safety checks.
A structural survey may be required especially on an older building prior to work. Wildlife surveys may also be needed, for instance to ascertain the presence of bats in lofts: if a scheme involves tree removal it is important to check whether a Tree Preservation Order has been imposed.
A seamless extension is often what people aim for, but achieving it requires expertise and flair: it could either take the style of the original building or a contrasting contemporary style can often complement a traditional building. To ensure that the extension adds value to the property in relation to its cost it is important to study comparable properties in the area.
When building over any existing single storey structure, such as a garage, it is vital to check that it is capable of bearing the extra load: strengthening could be required or it may be cheaper to demolish and rebuild.
In line with all extensions, there is currently a huge rise in the number of garage conversions which can add 20% more value to a house. Garages can often be an effective route to creating more living space: average costs are £6,000, there is often no need to put in new foundations or walls and power may already be in place.
However, foundations may need reinforcing, walls may need repairing and the ceiling height may need altering, all of which will require the services of an architect or designer and a planning application. Whilst most garage conversions will be allowed under permitted development, it is important to check the property deeds to ensure that there is no requirement for parking to remain as part of the property.
Planning permission will be needed if the property is in a conservation area and change of use consent is always required which needs Building Regulations approval.
One of the main advantages of loft conversions is that they avoid building over valuable garden space and, in many cases, require less labour: walls and a roof are in place therefore often minimal structural change is required. Loft conversions also offer the opportunity to incorporate increased insulation into the roof, making the house more energy-efficient.
The work is also less weather-dependent than external extensions, less disruptive, faster and can be cheaper. According to a report by Nationwide, adding a loft conversion incorporating a bedroom and bathroom can add 21% to the value of a property.
Basement Extensions and Cellars
The main reasons for deciding to dig underground are to retain garden space or because possibilities for above ground expansion are exhausted. Planning consent will be needed – the local authority will have a specific policy on underground development – and it is useful to be able to prove precedent if neighbours have successfully built basements.
The local water table is a crucial factor; a high water table can increase costs: to find out, consult the Environment Agency’s flood map. Access to the site for the building work also needs consideration. Along with an experienced architect, a structural engineer will be needed to carry out various reports.
Kitchen and Bathroom Extensions
It is advisable to confirm the positioning of the units, cooker and white goods early on in the scheme to allow planning for electrics, plumbing and ventilation. Plumbing schemes for bathrooms should also be decided on at an early stage.
Converted Churches and Barns
While churches will probably be listed and require specific planning consents, they can make exciting spaces to live in if converted with sensitivity. The open space available in churches and barns can adapt successfully to an open plan layout but as a bespoke approach is often needed, costs can be high. A solicitor may well be required regarding rights of access and restrictive covenants; deeds must be carefully looked at.
It must be noted that external changes are generally not allowed and relatives must have the right of access to visit remains of the deceased. The architect should work with the existing structure to create a workable scheme, retaining the building’s essential character where possible. While compromises are inevitable, energy efficiency is key to satisfying Building Regulations.
The Party Wall Act
The Party Wall Act 1996 is relevant as it exists to prevent and resolve disputes relating to party walls, boundary walls and excavations near neighbouring buildings. A party wall exists where owners on either side have a legal interest; a developer must inform adjacent owners about proposed works and they are entitled to object. The Act covers new building work on or at the boundary of two properties; excavations must be within 3m or 6m from the adjoining property depending on the depth of the excavations.
Class Q Development
This category of development may be relevant to those considering converting redundant farm buildings. Under the Town & Country Planning (General Permitted Development) (England) Order 2015, Schedule 2, Part 3, Class Q allows change of use of a building and land within its curtilage from use as an agricultural building to a dwelling house. It must have been in agricultural use on 20th March 2013; if it was brought into agricultural use after that, a 10 year period must elapse before development under Class Q is allowed.
A 2018 amendment distinguishes between larger and smaller houses; for larger houses the scheme allows for three separate houses with a cumulative floor space not exceeding 465 square metres. For smaller houses there is a maximum of 5 with a cumulative floor space of 500 square metres
Offsite Construction Systems
These may be worth considering as they can save time and money. They can include oak frames, cross-laminated timber, structural insulated panels and timber frames.
Town & Country Planning Act. 1990. [Online]. Available here. (Accessed 12th August 2021)
Gov.UK Guidelines. 2021.When is permission required? [Online]. Available here. (Accessed 12th August 2012)
Home Building & Renovating. 2021. [Online]. Available here. (Accessed 11th August 2021)
Ideal Home. 2021. Will a kitchen extension add value? [Online]. Available here. (Accessed 11th August 2021)
Our Property. 2021. Buying a church conversion. [Online]. Available here. (Accessed 11th August 2021)
Grand Designs Magazine. 2018. Converting a unique building into a stylish home. [Online]. Available here. (Accessed 11th August 2021)
Finance Digest. 2021. How your home can benefit from a loft conversion. [Online]. Available here. (Accessed 16th August 2021)